While updating SharePoint 2010 server there is need to run psconfig to update the SharePoint databases. By any chance you defer the update and at a later date you need to know that whether you need to run psconfig on the server. You could do so by running the following PowerShell command.
It returns a Boolean value True/False. If the result of this command is True, then you need to run psconfig. If the result is False then no further action is needed.